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Referencing in Reports & Essays - Harvard System

jeremy | Thursday January 27, 2011

Categories: Skills, Referencing

Harvard System

The system for referencing most commonly used in universities and for dissertations. in the UK and the US is known as the Harvard system.

It works like this. If you quote from any published, or unpublished, work you must say where it has come from– this is known as referencing the source.

1. In the body of your text all you need to do is put at the end of the quote two things - the family/surname name of the person whom you are quoting and the date it was written or recorded for video and audio.

2. To quote from a book put the name of the author and the date of publication in brackets after the quote. To quote from a book called Radio In Context by Guy Starkey all you put in your main text is (Starkey 2004).

3. Put the author name and full title of the book/publication/website/ newspaper at the end of the article, report, essay or dissertation with the name of the publisher and the date of publication. This is enough for most pre university media essays. When you get to university you must also reference the page number where your quote is to be found.

4. The full reference for the example above (where there could be a quote from say page 23) goes at the end of the article, and is under the surname of the person, with just an initial for the first name, and includes the publisher and where it was first published and the date in brackets. So it looks like this:

Starkey, G, Radio in Context New York Palgrave (2004) p23

Surname, Initial, Name of Book, Place, Publisher, Date, Page No

5. If you are quoting from a chapter in a book with a different author for each chapter then write the chapter title first, then the title of the book, and the editor’s name in brackets e.g (ed N Finestein) .               

Here are some other examples:

Bignell, J., ‘Television texts and television narratives’ in An Introduction to Television Studies London: Routledge, (2004), pp.85-112.

Bignell, J., Media...

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